Пустыня и полупустыня- Тушканчик

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Тушканчик Тушканчик

Для зоны полупустынь и пустынь чрезвычайно характерны своеобразные прыгающие животные — тушканчики, у которых задние ноги в 4 раза длиннее передних. Эти зверьки водятся также в степной зоне. По числу пальцев на задних лапках различают пятипалых и трехпалых тушканчиков. И те и другие представлены в природе несколькими видами.

Тушканчики ведут ночной образ жизни, живут в норах, на зиму залегают в спячку.

Питаются тушканчики семенами, листьями и стеблями хлебных злаков и трав, выкапывают корни, клубни и луковицы диких растений. Некоторые, кроме того, поедают мелких насекомых.

Самый крупный среди пятипалых тушканчиков — земляной заяц (длина тела достигает 25 см, хвоста — 30 см) буроватого или песчано-серого цвета с белым брюшком. Отличается длинными, стоячими ушами и отсутствием щеток на пальцах задних ног. Предпочитает твердый грунт, поселяясь в глинистых и щебенистых пустынях, полупустынях и степях, на такырах и солончаках.

Из трехпалых тушканчиков, для которых характерны более короткие уши и наличие жестких, щетинистых волос на ступнях задних ног, у нас обычны два вида. Мохноногий тушканчик (длина тела 10—14 см) живет на барханах, грядах и развеянных песках Казахстана и Средней Азии. Гребнепалый тушканчик (длина тела до 16 см) обитает на закрепленных песках Кызылкума и Каракумов. Он более подвижен, хорошо бегает, прыгает и лазает по кустам.

На тушканчиков нападают пустынные хищники (звери, птицы, пресмыкающиеся).

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